Commit faba2761 authored by Pablo Piskunow's avatar Pablo Piskunow Committed by Joseph Weston
Browse files

add kpm tutorial

parent d6e9ef86
Pipeline #3029 passed with stages
in 4 minutes and 2 seconds
--- original
+++ modified
@@ -12,6 +12,7 @@
import scipy
import _defs
+from contextlib import redirect_stdout
# For plotting
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
@@ -38,13 +39,13 @@
# Plot several density of states curves on the same axes.
-def plot_dos(labels_to_data):
+def plot_dos(labels_to_data, file_name=None):
for label, (x, y) in labels_to_data:
plt.plot(x, y, label=label, linewidth=2)
plt.legend(loc=2, framealpha=0.5)
plt.xlabel("energy [t]")
plt.ylabel("DoS [a.u.]")
- plt.show()
+ save_figure(file_name)
plt.clf()
@@ -59,10 +60,18 @@
kwant.plot(fsyst, site_size=site_size, site_color=(0, 0, 1, 0.3), ax=ax)
ax.set_title(title)
ax.set(adjustable='box-forced', aspect='equal')
- plt.show()
+ save_figure(file_name)
plt.clf()
+def save_figure(file_name):
+ if not file_name:
+ return
+ for extension in ('pdf', 'png'):
+ plt.savefig('.'.join((file_name,extension)),
+ dpi=_defs.dpi, bbox_inches='tight')
+
+
def simple_dos_example():
fsyst = make_syst().finalized()
@@ -76,19 +85,25 @@
plot_dos([
('densities', (energies, densities)),
('density subset', (energy_subset, density_subset)),
- ])
+ ],
+ file_name='kpm_dos'
+ )
def dos_averaging_example(fsyst):
spectrum = kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity(fsyst)
- print('identity resolution:', spectrum.average())
+ with open('kpm_normalization.txt', 'w') as f:
+ with redirect_stdout(f):
+ print('identity resolution:', spectrum.average())
# Fermi energy 0.1 and temperature 0.2
fermi = lambda E: 1 / (np.exp((E - 0.1) / 0.2) + 1)
n_states = len(fsyst.sites) # 1 degree of freedom per site
- print('number of filled states:', n_states * spectrum.average(fermi))
+ with open('kpm_total_states.txt', 'w') as f:
+ with redirect_stdout(f):
+ print('number of filled states:', n_states * spectrum.average(fermi))
def increasing_accuracy_example(fsyst):
@@ -102,7 +117,9 @@
plot_dos([
('density', original_dos),
('higher energy resolution', increased_resolution_dos),
- ])
+ ],
+ file_name='kpm_dos_acc'
+ )
# we supply the *total* number of moments and sampling points
spectrum.increase_accuracy(num_moments=200, num_rand_vecs=5)
@@ -112,7 +129,9 @@
plot_dos([
('density', original_dos),
('higher number of moments', increased_moments_dos),
- ])
+ ],
+ file_name='kpm_dos_r'
+ )
def operator_example(fsyst):
@@ -142,7 +161,9 @@
plot_ldos(fsyst, axes,[
('energy = 0', zero_energy_ldos),
('energy = 1', finite_energy_ldos),
- ])
+ ],
+ file_name='kpm_ldos'
+ )
def vector_factory_example(fsyst):
......@@ -9,3 +9,4 @@ Tutorial: learning Kwant through examples
tutorial4
tutorial5
tutorial6
tutorial7
# Tutorial 2.8. Calculating spectral density with the Kernel Polynomial Method
# ============================================================================
#
# Physics background
# ------------------
# - Chebyshev polynomials, random trace approximation, spectral densities.
#
# Kwant features highlighted
# --------------------------
# - kpm module,kwant operators.
import scipy
import _defs
# For plotting
from matplotlib import pyplot as plt
#HIDDEN_BEGIN_sys1
# necessary imports
import kwant
import numpy as np
# define the system
def make_syst(r=30, t=-1, a=1):
syst = kwant.Builder()
lat = kwant.lattice.honeycomb(a, norbs=1)
def circle(pos):
x, y = pos
return x ** 2 + y ** 2 < r ** 2
syst[lat.shape(circle, (0, 0))] = 0.
syst[lat.neighbors()] = t
syst.eradicate_dangling()
return syst
#HIDDEN_END_sys1
# Plot several density of states curves on the same axes.
def plot_dos(labels_to_data):
for label, (x, y) in labels_to_data:
plt.plot(x, y, label=label, linewidth=2)
plt.legend(loc=2, framealpha=0.5)
plt.xlabel("energy [t]")
plt.ylabel("DoS [a.u.]")
plt.show()
plt.clf()
def site_size_conversion(densities):
return 3 * np.abs(densities) / max(densities)
# Plot several local density of states maps in different subplots
def plot_ldos(fsyst, axes, titles_to_data, file_name=None):
for ax, (title, ldos) in zip(axes, titles_to_data):
site_size = site_size_conversion(ldos) # convert LDoS to sizes
kwant.plot(fsyst, site_size=site_size, site_color=(0, 0, 1, 0.3), ax=ax)
ax.set_title(title)
ax.set(adjustable='box-forced', aspect='equal')
plt.show()
plt.clf()
def simple_dos_example():
#HIDDEN_BEGIN_kpm1
fsyst = make_syst().finalized()
spectrum = kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity(fsyst)
#HIDDEN_END_kpm1
#HIDDEN_BEGIN_kpm2
energies, densities = spectrum()
#HIDDEN_END_kpm2
#HIDDEN_BEGIN_kpm3
energy_subset = np.linspace(0, 2)
density_subset = spectrum(energy_subset)
#HIDDEN_END_kpm3
plot_dos([
('densities', (energies, densities)),
('density subset', (energy_subset, density_subset)),
])
def dos_averaging_example(fsyst):
spectrum = kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity(fsyst)
#HIDDEN_BEGIN_av1
print('identity resolution:', spectrum.average())
#HIDDEN_END_av1
#HIDDEN_BEGIN_av2
# Fermi energy 0.1 and temperature 0.2
fermi = lambda E: 1 / (np.exp((E - 0.1) / 0.2) + 1)
n_states = len(fsyst.sites) # 1 degree of freedom per site
print('number of filled states:', n_states * spectrum.average(fermi))
#HIDDEN_END_av2
def increasing_accuracy_example(fsyst):
spectrum = kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity(fsyst)
original_dos = spectrum() # get unaltered DoS
#HIDDEN_BEGIN_acc1
spectrum.increase_energy_resolution(tol=0.03)
#HIDDEN_END_acc1
increased_resolution_dos = spectrum()
plot_dos([
('density', original_dos),
('higher energy resolution', increased_resolution_dos),
])
#HIDDEN_BEGIN_acc2
# we supply the *total* number of moments and sampling points
spectrum.increase_accuracy(num_moments=200, num_rand_vecs=5)
#HIDDEN_END_acc2
increased_moments_dos = spectrum()
plot_dos([
('density', original_dos),
('higher number of moments', increased_moments_dos),
])
def operator_example(fsyst):
#HIDDEN_BEGIN_op1
# identity matrix
matrix_op = scipy.sparse.eye(len(fsyst.sites))
matrix_spectrum = kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity(fsyst, operator=matrix_op)
#HIDDEN_END_op1
#HIDDEN_BEGIN_op2
# 'sum=True' means we sum over all the sites
kwant_op = kwant.operator.Density(fsyst, sum=True)
operator_spectrum = kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity(fsyst, operator=kwant_op)
#HIDDEN_END_op2
plot_dos([
('identity matrix', matrix_spectrum()),
('kwant.operator.Density', operator_spectrum()),
])
def ldos_example(fsyst):
#HIDDEN_BEGIN_op3
# 'sum=False' is the default, but we include it explicitly here for clarity.
kwant_op = kwant.operator.Density(fsyst, sum=False)
local_dos = kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity(fsyst, operator=kwant_op)
#HIDDEN_END_op3
#HIDDEN_BEGIN_op4
zero_energy_ldos = local_dos(energy=0)
finite_energy_ldos = local_dos(energy=1)
_, axes = plt.subplots(1, 2, figsize=(12, 7))
plot_ldos(fsyst, axes,[
('energy = 0', zero_energy_ldos),
('energy = 1', finite_energy_ldos),
])
#HIDDEN_END_op4
def vector_factory_example(fsyst):
spectrum = kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity(fsyst)
#HIDDEN_BEGIN_fact1
# construct vectors with n random elements -1 or +1.
def binary_vectors(n):
return np.rint(np.random.random_sample(n)) * 2 - 1
custom_factory = kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity(fsyst,
vector_factory=binary_vectors)
#HIDDEN_END_fact1
plot_dos([
('default vector factory', spectrum()),
('binary vector factory', custom_factory()),
])
def bilinear_map_operator_example(fsyst):
#HIDDEN_BEGIN_blm
rho = kwant.operator.Density(fsyst, sum=True)
# sesquilinear map that does the same thing as `rho`
def rho_alt(bra, ket):
return np.vdot(bra, ket)
rho_spectrum = kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity(fsyst, operator=rho)
rho_alt_spectrum = kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity(fsyst, operator=rho_alt)
#HIDDEN_END_blm
plot_dos([
('kwant.operator.Density', rho_spectrum()),
('bilinear operator', rho_alt_spectrum()),
])
def main():
simple_dos_example()
fsyst = make_syst().finalized()
dos_averaging_example(fsyst)
increasing_accuracy_example(fsyst)
operator_example(fsyst)
ldos_example(fsyst)
vector_factory_example(fsyst)
bilinear_map_operator_example(fsyst)
# Call the main function if the script gets executed (as opposed to imported).
# See <http://docs.python.org/library/__main__.html>.
if __name__ == '__main__':
main()
......@@ -54,6 +54,8 @@ where we observe the cosine-like dispersion of the square lattice. Close
to ``k=0`` this agrees well with the quadratic dispersion this tight-binding
Hamiltonian is approximating.
.. _closed-systems:
Closed systems
..............
......
##############################################################
Calculating spectral density with the kernel polynomial method
##############################################################
We have already seen in the ":ref:`closed-systems`" tutorial that we can use
Kwant simply to build Hamiltonians, which we can then directly diagonalize
using routines from Scipy.
This already allows us to treat systems with a few thousand sites without too
many problems. For larger systems one is often not so interested in the exact
eigenenergies and eigenstates, but more in the *density of states*.
The kernel polynomial method (KPM), is an algorithm to obtain a polynomial
expansion of the density of states. It can also be used to calculate the
spectral density of arbitrary operators. Kwant has an implementation of the
KPM method that is based on the algorithms presented in Ref. [1]_.
Roughly speaking, KPM approximates the density of states (or any other spectral
density) by expanding the action of the Hamiltonian (and operator of interest)
on a (small) set of *random vectors* as a sum of Chebyshev polynomials up to
some order, and then averaging. The accuracy of the method can be tuned by
modifying the order of the Chebyshev expansion and the number of random
vectors. See notes on accuracy_ below for details.
.. seealso::
The complete source code of this example can be found in
:download:`tutorial/kernel_polynomial_method.py <../../../tutorial/kernel_polynomial_method.py>`
.. _accuracy:
.. specialnote:: Performance and accuracy
The KPM method is especially well suited for large systems, and in the
case when one is not interested in individual eigenvalues, but rather
in obtaining an approximate spectral density.
The accuracy in the energy resolution is dominated by the number of
moments. The lowest accuracy is at the center of the spectrum, while
slightly higher accuracy is obtained at the edges of the spectrum.
If we use the KPM method (with the Jackson kernel, see Ref. [1]_) to
describe a delta peak at the center of the spectrum, we will obtain a
function similar to a Gaussian of width :math:`σ=πa/N`, where
:math:`N` is the number of moments, and :math:`a` is the width of the
spectrum.
On the other hand, the random vectors will *explore* the range of the
spectrum, and as the system gets bigger, the number of random vectors
that are necessary to sample the whole spectrum reduces. Thus, a small
number of random vectors is in general enough, and increasing this number
will not result in a visible improvement of the approximation.
Introduction
************
Our aim is to use the kernel polynomial method to obtain the spectral density
:math:`ρ_A(E)`, as a function of the energy :math:`E`, of some Hilbert space
operator :math:`A`. We define
.. math::
ρ_A(E) = ρ(E) A(E),
where :math:`A(E)` is the expectation value of :math:`A` for all the
eigenstates of the Hamiltonian with energy :math:`E`, and the density of
states is
.. math::
ρ(E) = \frac{1}{D} \sum_{k=0}^{D-1} δ(E-E_k),
:math:`D` being the Hilbert space dimension, and :math:`E_k` the eigenvalues.
In the special case when :math:`A` is the identity, then :math:`ρ_A(E)` is
simply :math:`ρ(E)`, the density of states.
Calculating the density of states
*********************************
In the following example, we will use the KPM implementation in Kwant
to obtain the density of states of a graphene disk.
We start by importing kwant and defining our system.
.. literalinclude:: kernel_polynomial_method.py
:start-after: #HIDDEN_BEGIN_sys1
:end-before: #HIDDEN_END_sys1
After making a system we can then create a `~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity`
object that represents the density of states for this system.
.. literalinclude:: kernel_polynomial_method.py
:start-after: #HIDDEN_BEGIN_kpm1
:end-before: #HIDDEN_END_kpm1
The `~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity` can then be called like a function to obtain a
sequence of energies in the spectrum of the Hamiltonian, and the corresponding
density of states at these energies.
.. literalinclude:: kernel_polynomial_method.py
:start-after: #HIDDEN_BEGIN_kpm2
:end-before: #HIDDEN_END_kpm2
When called with no arguments, an optimal set of energies is chosen (these are
not evenly distributed over the spectrum, see Ref. [1]_ for details), however
it is also possible to provide an explicit sequence of energies at which to
evaluate the density of states.
.. literalinclude:: kernel_polynomial_method.py
:start-after: #HIDDEN_BEGIN_kpm3
:end-before: #HIDDEN_END_kpm3
.. image:: ../images/kpm_dos.*
In addition to being called like functions, `~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity`
objects also have a method `~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity.average` which can be
used to integrate the density of states against some distribution function over
the whole spectrum. If no distribution function is specified, then the uniform
distribution is used:
.. literalinclude:: kernel_polynomial_method.py
:start-after: #HIDDEN_BEGIN_av1
:end-before: #HIDDEN_END_av1
.. literalinclude:: ../images/kpm_normalization.txt
We see that the integral of the density of states is normalized to 1. If
we wish to calculate, say, the average number of states populated in
equilibrium, then we should integrate with respect to a Fermi-Dirac
distribution and multiply by the total number of available states in
the system:
.. literalinclude:: kernel_polynomial_method.py
:start-after: #HIDDEN_BEGIN_av2
:end-before: #HIDDEN_END_av2
.. literalinclude:: ../images/kpm_total_states.txt
.. specialnote:: Stability and performance: spectral bounds
The KPM method internally rescales the spectrum of the Hamiltonian to the
interval ``(-1, 1)`` (see Ref [1]_ for details), which requires calculating
the boundaries of the spectrum (using ``scipy.sparse.linalg.eigsh``). This
can be very costly for large systems, so it is possible to pass this
explicitly as via the ``bounds`` parameter when instantiating the
`~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity` (see the class documentation for details).
Additionally, `~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity` accepts a parameter ``epsilon``,
which ensures that the rescaled Hamiltonian (used internally), always has a
spectrum strictly contained in the interval ``(-1, 1)``. If bounds are not
provided then the tolerance on the bounds calculated with
``scipy.sparse.linalg.eigsh`` is set to ``epsilon/2``.
Increasing the accuracy of the approximation
********************************************
`~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity` has two methods for increasing the accuracy
of the method, each of which offers different levels of control over what
exactly is changed.
The simplest way to obtain a more accurate solution is to use the
``increase_energy_resolution`` method:
.. literalinclude:: kernel_polynomial_method.py
:start-after: #HIDDEN_BEGIN_acc1
:end-before: #HIDDEN_END_acc1
This will update the number of calculated moments and also the default
number of sampling points such that the maximum distance between successive
energy points is ``tol`` (see notes on accuracy_).
.. image:: ../images/kpm_dos_acc.*
Alternatively, you can directly increase (or decrease) the number of moments,
random vectors and sampling points with the method
`~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity.increase_accuracy`.
.. literalinclude:: kernel_polynomial_method.py
:start-after: #HIDDEN_BEGIN_acc2
:end-before: #HIDDEN_END_acc2
.. image:: ../images/kpm_dos_r.*
In the above example we only increased the number of moments and decreased the
number of random vectors. The keyword argument ``num_sampling_points`` can
be also specified by passing the keyword argument to
`~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity.increase_accuracy`.
.. _operator_spectral_density:
Calculating the spectral density of an operator
***********************************************
Above, we saw how to calculate the density of states by creating a
`~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity` and passing it a finalized Kwant system.
When instantiating a `~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity` we may optionally
supply an operator in addition to the system. In this case it is
the spectral density of the given operator that is calculated.
`~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity` accepts the operators in a few formats:
* *explicit matrices* (numpy array of scipy sparse matrices will work)
* *operators* from `kwant.operator`
If an explicit matrix is provided then it must have the same
shape as the system Hamiltonian.
.. literalinclude:: kernel_polynomial_method.py
:start-after: #HIDDEN_BEGIN_op1
:end-before: #HIDDEN_END_op1
Or, to do the same calculation using `kwant.operator.Density`:
.. literalinclude:: kernel_polynomial_method.py
:start-after: #HIDDEN_BEGIN_op2
:end-before: #HIDDEN_END_op2
Using operators from `kwant.operator` allows us to calculate quantities
such as the *local* density of states by telling the operator not to
sum over all the sites of the system:
.. literalinclude:: kernel_polynomial_method.py
:start-after: #HIDDEN_BEGIN_op3
:end-before: #HIDDEN_END_op3
`~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity` will properly handle this vector output,
which allows us to plot the local density of states at different
point in the spectrum:
.. literalinclude:: kernel_polynomial_method.py
:start-after: #HIDDEN_BEGIN_op4
:end-before: #HIDDEN_END_op4
.. image:: ../images/kpm_ldos.*
This nicely illustrates the edge states of the graphene dot at zero
energy, and the bulk states at higher energy.
Advanced topics
***************
Custom distributions for random vectors
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
By default `~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity` will use random vectors
whose components are unit complex numbers with phases drawn
from a uniform distribution. There are several reasons why you may
wish to make a different choice of distribution for your random vectors,
for example to enforce certain symmetries or to only use real-valued vectors.
To change how the random vectors are generated, you need only specify a
function that takes the dimension of the Hilbert space as a single parameter,
and which returns a vector in that Hilbert space:
.. literalinclude:: kernel_polynomial_method.py
:start-after: #HIDDEN_BEGIN_fact1
:end-before: #HIDDEN_END_fact1
Reproducible calculations
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
Because KPM internally uses random vectors, running the same calculation
twice will not give bit-for-bit the same result. However, similarly to
the funcions in `~kwant.rmt`, the random number generator can be directly
manipulated by passing a value to the ``rng`` parameter of
`~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity`. ``rng`` can itself be a random number generator,
or it may simply be a seed to pass to the numpy random number generator
(that is used internally by default).
Defining operators as sesquilinear maps
^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^
`Above`__, we showed how `~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity` can calculate the
spectral density of operators, and how we can define operators by using
`kwant.operator`. If you need even more flexibility,
`~kwant.kpm.SpectralDensity` will also accept a *function* as its ``operator``