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WIP: first draft of observables

Joseph Weston requested to merge jbweston/kwant:feature/observables into master

Add a module physics.observables that can be used to calculate observables.

Currently only "local" observables are implemented, that is, observables that can be defined by a single (matrix) value M_i for each site i, in addition to the Hamiltonian.

This covers common cases, including what we call "generalized charge", which includes:

  • probability density
  • charge / charge density
  • spin / spin density

also it includes the "generalized currents" associated with the generalized charge:

  • probability current
  • charge current
  • spin current

and finally "source" terms, the most prominent example of which is:

  • spin torque

This supersedes the current-calculating part of !17 (closed). This closes #14 (closed).

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